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kubernetes组件之api 安装

2022-01-15 09:00:36  阅读:19  来源: 互联网

标签:kubernetes -- apiserver pem api master 组件 kube


 

下载安装包

wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.23.0-rc.0/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz

  解压并拷贝二进制程序到环境变量目录

tar xf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl /usr/local/bin/

  分发其他节点

scp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl master-2:/usr/local/bin/
scp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler kubectl master-2:/usr/local/bin/

  所有节点创建配置文件目录及日志目录

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ssl
mkdir /var/log/kubernetes

  

#启动TLS Bootstrapping 机制

Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,每个节点的 kubelet 组件都要使用由 apiserver 使用的 CA 签发的有效证书才能与 apiserver 通讯,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。

为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。

Bootstrap 是很多系统中都存在的程序,比如 Linux 的bootstrap,bootstrap 一般都是作为预先配置在开启或者系统启动的时候加载,这可以用来生成一个指定环境。Kubernetes 的 kubelet 在启动时同样可以加载一个这样的配置文件,这个文件的内容类似如下形式:
  

 apiVersion: v1

clusters: null

contexts:

- context:

    cluster: kubernetes

    user: kubelet-bootstrap

  name: default

current-context: default

kind: Config

preferences: {}

users:

- name: kubelet-bootstrap

  user: {}

 

  

#TLS bootstrapping 具体引导过程

1.TLS 作用

TLS 的作用就是对通讯加密,防止中间人窃听;同时如果证书不信任的话根本就无法与 apiserver 建立连接,更不用提有没有权限向apiserver请求指定内容。

2. RBAC 作用
当 TLS 解决了通讯问题后,那么权限问题就应由 RBAC 解决(可以使用其他权限模型,如 ABAC);RBAC 中规定了一个用户或者用户组(subject)具有请求哪些 api 的权限;在配合 TLS 加密的时候,实际上 apiserver 读取客户端证书的 CN 字段作为用户名,读取 O字段作为用户组.

以上说明:第一,想要与 apiserver 通讯就必须采用由 apiserver CA 签发的证书,这样才能形成信任关系,建立 TLS 连接;第二,可以通过证书的 CN、O 字段来提供 RBAC 所需的用户与用户组。

 #kubelet 首次启动流程

TLS bootstrapping 功能是让 kubelet 组件去 apiserver 申请证书,然后用于连接 apiserver;那么第一次启动时没有证书如何连接 apiserver ?

在apiserver 配置中指定了一个 token.csv 文件,该文件中是一个预设的用户配置;同时该用户的Token 和 由apiserver 的 CA签发的用户被写入了 kubelet 所使用的 bootstrap.kubeconfig 配置文件中;这样在首次请求时,kubelet 使用 bootstrap.kubeconfig 中被 apiserver CA 签发证书时信任的用户来与 apiserver 建立 TLS 通讯,使用 bootstrap.kubeconfig 中的用户 Token 来向 apiserver 声明自己的 RBAC 授权身份.
token.csv格式:

3940fd7fbb391d1b4d861ad17a1f0613,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap"

首次启动时,可能与遇到 kubelet 报 401 无权访问 apiserver 的错误;这是因为在默认情况下,kubelet 通过 bootstrap.kubeconfig 中的预设用户 Token 声明了自己的身份,然后创建 CSR 请求;但是不要忘记这个用户在我们不处理的情况下他没任何权限的,包括创建 CSR 请求;所以需要创建一个 ClusterRoleBinding,将预设用户 kubelet-bootstrap 与内置的 ClusterRole system:node-bootstrapper 绑定到一起,使其能够发起 CSR 请求。稍后安装kubelet的时候演示。

#创建token.csv文件

[root@master-1 work]# pwd
/data/work
[root@master-1 work]# ls
ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  etcd.csr  etcd-csr.json  etcd-key.pem  etcd.pem
[root@master-1 work]#  cat > token.csv << EOF
> $(head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '),kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap"
> EOF
[root@master-1 work]# cat token.csv 
7dbeda43ed70c5db077891df43115dca,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap"

  

#创建csr请求文件

[root@master-1 work]# cat kube-apiserver-csr.json 
{
  "CN": "kubernetes",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.10.28",
    "192.168.10.29",
    "192.168.10.30",
    "192.168.10.31",
    "10.255.0.1",
    "kubernetes",
    "kubernetes.default",
    "kubernetes.default.svc",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Hebei",
      "L": "shijiazhuang",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "system"
    }
  ]
}

  将证书文件复制对应目录

[root@master-1 work]# ls
ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  etcd.csr  etcd-csr.json  etcd-key.pem  etcd.pem  kube-apiserver.csr  kube-apiserver-csr.json  kube-apiserver-key.pem  kube-apiserver.pem  token.csv
[root@master-1 work]# cp ca*.pem kube-apiserver*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有新邮件
[root@master-1 work]# ls
ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem  etcd.csr  etcd-csr.json  etcd-key.pem  etcd.pem  kube-apiserver.csr  kube-apiserver-csr.json  kube-apiserver-key.pem  kube-apiserver.pem  token.csv
[root@master-1 work]# cp token.csv /etc/kubernetes/

 创建api 配置文件

vim kube-apiserver.conf 

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota \
  --anonymous-auth=false \
  --bind-address=192.168.10.29 \
  --secure-port=6443 \
  --advertise-address=192.168.10.29 \
  --insecure-port=0 \
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \
  --runtime-config=api/all=true \
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.255.0.0/16 \
  --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv \
  --service-node-port-range=30000-50000 \
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem  \
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem \
  --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \
  --service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \
  --service-account-issuer=https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local \
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem \
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem \
  --etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.29:2379,https://192.168.10.30:2379,https://192.168.10.31:2379 \
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --apiserver-count=3 \
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \
  --audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log \
  --event-ttl=1h \
  --alsologtostderr=true \
  --logtostderr=false \
  --log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes \
  --v=4"

 

#注: 

--logtostderr:启用日志

--v:日志等级

--log-dir:日志目录

--etcd-servers:etcd集群地址

--bind-address:监听地址

--secure-port:https安全端口

--advertise-address:集群通告地址

--allow-privileged:启用授权

--service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段

--enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块

--authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理

--enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制

--token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件

--service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围

--kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书

--tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书

--etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书 –

-audit-log-xxx:审计日志

创建启动文件

[root@master-1 work]#  vim kube-apiserver.service 

[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=etcd.service
Wants=etcd.service

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-apiserver $KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
Type=notify
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

  分发配置文件与启动文件 

[root@master-1 work]# scp -r /etc/kubernetes master-2:/etc/
ca-key.pem                                                                                                                                                                     100% 1675   440.6KB/s   00:00    
ca.pem                                                                                                                                                                         100% 1346   429.8KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver-key.pem                                                                                                                                                         100% 1679   557.7KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver.pem                                                                                                                                                             100% 1635   478.7KB/s   00:00    
token.csv                                                                                                                                                                      100%   84    25.0KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver.conf                                                                                                                                                            100% 1611     1.2MB/s   00:00    
[root@master-1 work]# scp -r /etc/kubernetes master-3:/etc/
ca-key.pem                                                                                                                                                                     100% 1675   911.5KB/s   00:00    
ca.pem                                                                                                                                                                         100% 1346   765.9KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver-key.pem                                                                                                                                                         100% 1679   990.1KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver.pem                                                                                                                                                             100% 1635   914.3KB/s   00:00    
token.csv                                                                                                                                                                      100%   84    69.5KB/s   00:00    
kube-apiserver.conf                                                                                                                                                            100% 1611     1.1MB/s   00:00    
[root@master-1 work]# scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service master-2:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
kube-apiserver.service                                                                                                                                                         100%  361   203.5KB/s   00:00    
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有新邮件
[root@master-1 work]# scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service master-2:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
kube-apiserver.service                                                                                                                                                         100%  361   242.1KB/s   00:00    
[root@master-1 work]# scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service master-3:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
kube-apiserver.service                                                                                        

  修改master-2与master-3的配置文件的IP

vim /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf 

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota \
  --anonymous-auth=false \
  --bind-address=192.168.10.30 \
  --secure-port=6443 \
  --advertise-address=192.168.10.30 \
  --insecure-port=0 \
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \
  --runtime-config=api/all=true \
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.255.0.0/16 \
  --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv \
  --service-node-port-range=30000-50000 \
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem  \
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem \
  --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \
  --service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \
  --service-account-issuer=https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local \
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem \
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem \
  --etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.29:2379,https://192.168.10.30:2379,https://192.168.10.31:2379 \
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --apiserver-count=3 \
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \
  --audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log \
  --event-ttl=1h \
  --alsologtostderr=true \
  --logtostderr=false \
  --log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes \
  --v=4"

  与master-3的配置文件的IP

root@master-3 modules]# vim /etc/kubernetes/kube-apiserver.conf 

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota \
  --anonymous-auth=false \
  --bind-address=192.168.10.31 \
  --secure-port=6443 \
  --advertise-address=192.168.10.31 \
  --insecure-port=0 \
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \
  --runtime-config=api/all=true \
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.255.0.0/16 \
  --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv \
  --service-node-port-range=30000-50000 \
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem  \
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver.pem \
  --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-apiserver-key.pem \
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \
  --service-account-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \
  --service-account-issuer=https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local \
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd.pem \
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/etcd/ssl/etcd-key.pem \
  --etcd-servers=https://192.168.10.29:2379,https://192.168.10.30:2379,https://192.168.10.31:2379 \
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --apiserver-count=3 \
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \
  --audit-log-path=/var/log/kube-apiserver-audit.log \
  --event-ttl=1h \
  --alsologtostderr=true \
  --logtostderr=false \
  --log-dir=/var/log/kubernetes \
  --v=4"

  启动

[root@master-3 modules]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@master-3 modules]# systemctl enable kube-apiserver
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/kube-apiserver.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service.
[root@master-3 modules]# systemctl start kube-apiserver
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有新邮件
[root@master-3 modules]#  systemctl status kube-apiserver
● kube-apiserver.service - Kubernetes API Server
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 五 2022-01-14 10:15:17 CST; 16s ago
     Docs: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
 Main PID: 26553 (kube-apiserver)
    Tasks: 11
   Memory: 258.7M
   CGroup: /system.slice/kube-apiserver.service
           └─26553 /usr/local/bin/kube-apiserver --enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,NodeRestriction,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota --anonymous-auth=false --bind-addr...

1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: W0114 10:15:18.756424   26553 lease.go:233] Resetting endpoints for master service "kubernetes" to [192.168.10.29 192.168.10.30 192.168.10.31]
1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:18.758353   26553 controller.go:611] quota admission added evaluator for: endpoints
1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:18.760229   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="PUT" URI="/api/v1/namespaces/default/endpoints/kubernetes" latency="3.416816ms" userA...088" resp=200
1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:18.762632   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="GET" URI="/apis/discovery.k8s.io/v1/namespaces/default/endpointslices/kubernetes" latency="1.84777...
1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:18.763525   26553 controller.go:611] quota admission added evaluator for: endpointslices.discovery.k8s.io
1月 14 10:15:18 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:18.765955   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="PUT" URI="/apis/discovery.k8s.io/v1/namespaces/default/endpointslices/kubernetes" latency="3.00586...
1月 14 10:15:28 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:28.747329   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="GET" URI="/api/v1/namespaces/default" latency="2.212795ms" userAgent="kube-apiserver/...088" resp=200
1月 14 10:15:28 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:28.749026   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="GET" URI="/api/v1/namespaces/default/services/kubernetes" latency="1.384208ms" userAg...088" resp=200
1月 14 10:15:28 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:28.755391   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="GET" URI="/api/v1/namespaces/default/endpoints/kubernetes" latency="1.578857ms" userA...088" resp=200
1月 14 10:15:28 master-3 kube-apiserver[26553]: I0114 10:15:28.758525   26553 httplog.go:129] "HTTP" verb="GET" URI="/apis/discovery.k8s.io/v1/namespaces/default/endpointslices/kubernetes" latency="1.56392...
Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

  部署kubectl组件

Kubectl是客户端工具,操作k8s资源的,如增删改查等。

Kubectl操作资源的时候,怎么知道连接到哪个集群,需要一个文件/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf,kubectl会根据这个文件的配置,去访问k8s资源。/etc/kubernetes/admin.con文件记录了访问的k8s集群,和用到的证书。

 

#创建csr请求文件

{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Hubei",
      "L": "Wuhan",
      "O": "system:masters",             
      "OU": "system"
    }
  ]
}

  

#生成证书

[root@master-1 work]# cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [INFO] generate received request
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [INFO] received CSR
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [INFO] generating key: rsa-2048
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [INFO] encoded CSR
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [INFO] signed certificate with serial number 381703224104814716044969405758384157623879899724
2022/01/15 08:28:44 [WARNING] This certificate lacks a "hosts" field. This makes it unsuitable for
websites. For more information see the Baseline Requirements for the Issuance and Management
of Publicly-Trusted Certificates, v.1.1.6, from the CA/Browser Forum (https://cabforum.org);
specifically, section 10.2.3 ("Information Requirements").

  证书拷贝对应目录‘

[root@master-1 work]# cp admin*.pem /etc/kubernetes/ssl/

  #创建kubeconfig配置文件,比较重要

1.设置集群参数

[root@master-1 work]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes --certificate-authority=ca.pem --embed-certs=true --server=https://192.168.10.29:6443 --kubeconfig=kube.config
Cluster "kubernetes" set.
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[root@master-1 work]# kubectl config set-credentials admin --client-certificate=admin.pem --client-key=admin-key.pem --embed-certs=true --kubeconfig=kube.config
User "admin" set.
[root@master-1 work]# kubectl config set-context kubernetes --cluster=kubernetes --user=admin --kubeconfig=kube.config
Context "kubernetes" created.
[root@master-1 work]# kubectl config use-context kubernetes --kubeconfig=kube.config
Switched to context "kubernetes".
[root@master-1 work]#  mkdir ~/.kube -p
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[root@master-1 work]# cp kube.config ~/.kube/config
[root@master-1 work]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding kube-apiserver:kubelet-apis --clusterrole=system:kubelet-api-admin --user kubernetes
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kube-apiserver:kubelet-apis created

  测试

[root@master-1 work]# kubectl cluster-info
Kubernetes control plane is running at https://192.168.10.29:6443

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.
[root@master-1 work]# kubectl get componentstatuses
Warning: v1 ComponentStatus is deprecated in v1.19+
NAME                 STATUS      MESSAGE                                                                                        ERROR
controller-manager   Unhealthy   Get "https://127.0.0.1:10257/healthz": dial tcp 127.0.0.1:10257: connect: connection refused   
scheduler            Unhealthy   Get "https://127.0.0.1:10259/healthz": dial tcp 127.0.0.1:10259: connect: connection refused   
etcd-0               Healthy     {"health":"true","reason":""}                                                                  
etcd-2               Healthy     {"health":"true","reason":""}                                                                  
etcd-1               Healthy     {"health":"true","reason":""}                                                                  
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有新邮件
[root@master-1 work]# 

  同步其他节点

[root@master-1 ~]# scp -r .kube master-2:/root
[root@master-1 ~]# scp -r .kube master-3:/root

  设置自动补全

 yum install -y bash-completion&& source /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion&& source <(kubectl completion bash)&&  kubectl completion bash > ~/.kube/completion.bash.inc&&source '/root/.kube/completion.bash.inc' &&source $HOME/.bash_profile

  

 

标签:kubernetes,--,apiserver,pem,api,master,组件,kube
来源: https://www.cnblogs.com/rdchenxi/p/15657019.html

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