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ubuntu-20.04.3 使用kubeadm方式安装kubernetes(k8s)集群

2021-09-16 10:02:19  阅读:149  来源: 互联网

标签:abcmaster kubernetes Running ubuntu coredns kubeadm kube com flannel


ubuntu-20.04.3 使用kubeadm方式安装kubernetes(k8s)集群

1、初始化虚拟机环境

  • 使用VM VirtualBox安装ubuntu-20.04.3-live-server-amd64.iso镜像,创建3台虚拟机,分别为
    • abcMaster:192.168.0.100
    • abcNode1:192.168.0.115
    • abcNode2:192.168.0.135
  • 统一修改root用户密码
sudo passwd root
  • 修改sshd服务配置,允许xshell以root用户访问
# 使用root身份修改/etc/ssh/sshd_config文件,设置PermitRootLogin为yes
# 重启sshd服务
service ssh restart
  • 关闭防火墙、虚拟交换分区、selinux
# 关闭防火墙
ufw disable
# 关闭虚拟交换(注释fstab中swap配置)
vim /etc/fstab
# 关闭selinux(未找到)
  • 设置主机hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
192.168.0.100 abcmaster
192.168.0.115 abcnode1
192.168.0.135 abcnode2
EOF
  • 将桥接的IPV4流量传递到iptables链中
# 配置
cat >> /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
# 生效
sysctl --system

2、安装docker

  • 设置apt-get 国内源
# 备份/etc/apt/sources.list
cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak
# 使用vim 替换/etc/apt/sources.list中的资源地址
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
## 更新
apt-get update
  • 安装docker
apt-get install -y docker.io
  • 设置docker国内镜像源
# 配置
tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF'
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://wi175f8g.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF
# 重启
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker

3、安装k8s

  • 配置k8s安装源,然后安装kubelet、kubeadm、kubectl
apt-get update && apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
curl https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | apt-key add - 
cat >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list << EOF
deb https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/apt/ kubernetes-xenial main
EOF  
apt-get update
apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
  • 在master节点执行kubeadm初始化命令
kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --ignore-preflight-errors=NumCPU --apiserver-advertise-address=192.168.0.100 --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers

报错情况1:

[ERROR ImagePull]: failed to pull image registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4: output: Error response from daemon: manifest for registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4 not found: manifest unknown: manifest unknown
, error: exit status 1

原因:无法从aliyuncs仓库中拉取到coredns镜像。

解决方案: 直接使用docker拉取coredns/coredns镜像,然后tag为所需镜像

docker pull coredns/coredns
docker tag coredns/coredns:latest registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4
docker rmi coredns/coredns

报错情况2:kubelet.service服务启动失败

Jun  8 09:45:35 kubelet: F0608 09:45:35.392302   24268 server.go:266] failed to run Kubelet: failed to create kubelet: misconfiguration: kubelet cgroup driver: "systemd" is different from docker cgroup driver: "cgroupfs"
Jun  8 09:45:35 systemd: kubelet.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=255/n/a
Jun  8 09:45:35 systemd: Unit kubelet.service entered failed state.
Jun  8 09:45:35 systemd: kubelet.service failed.

解决方案

修改docker服务的启动方式配置

# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// --containerd=/run/containerd/containerd.sock --exec-opt native.cgroupdriver=systemd
# 重启docker 服务
systemctl daemon-reload && systemctl restart docker

报错情况3:

[ERROR Port-6443]: Port 6443 is in use
.....

解决方案: 重置kubeadm

kubeadm reset

重新执行初始化命令,完成初始化

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

按照提示执行后续命令

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/admin.conf

查看部署状态

kubectl get nodes
# 执行结果
NAME        STATUS     ROLES                  AGE     VERSION
abcmaster   NotReady   control-plane,master   3m59s   v1.22.1
  • 在abcnode1/2执行kubeadm join

注意:执行时同样遇到了报错情况2,所以需要在abcnode中也执行问题处理操作,然后执行kubeadm join命令

kubeadm join 192.168.0.100:6443 --token 7ni2ey.qkjhtp3ygsn0lswk \
        --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:2ed9136ae664f9c74083f174e748be747c7e2926bdcf05877da003bd44f7fcc1

执行成功效果:

This node has joined the cluster:
* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received.
* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details.

Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.

初始化结果:

# kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS     ROLES                  AGE    VERSION
abcmaster   NotReady   control-plane,master   20m    v1.22.1
abcnode1    NotReady   <none>                 4m6s   v1.22.1
abcnode2    NotReady   <none>                 13s    v1.22.1

目前所有节点都处于NotReady状态。

  • 在abcmaster安装kube-flannel.yml插件
# 直接拉取并安装
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml

操作失败,无法连接到对象地址,改为直接从gitHub下载kube-flannel.yml文件文件

# 1、下载kube-flannel.yml文件,并复制到abcmaster中
# 2、通过命令安装
kubectl apply -f ./kube-flannel.yml

查看pods状态

# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
root@abcmaster:~# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                READY   STATUS              RESTARTS      AGE
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-lx9m7            0/1     ContainerCreating   0             35m
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-r6ctb            0/1     ContainerCreating   0             35m
etcd-abcmaster                      1/1     Running             1             35m
kube-apiserver-abcmaster            1/1     Running             1             35m
kube-controller-manager-abcmaster   1/1     Running             1             35m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-m5w5w         0/1     CrashLoopBackOff    4 (79s ago)   3m39s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-rmvj4         0/1     CrashLoopBackOff    5 (13s ago)   3m39s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-wjw74         0/1     CrashLoopBackOff    4 (82s ago)   3m39s
kube-proxy-djxs6                    1/1     Running             1             19m
kube-proxy-q9c8h                    1/1     Running             0             15m
kube-proxy-s7cfq                    1/1     Running             0             35m
kube-scheduler-abcmaster            1/1     Running             1             35m

遇到kube-flannel-ds-amd64相关pod无法启动问题。查看Pod日志,看到有如下错误信息:

# kubectl logs kube-flannel-ds-amd64-m5w5w -n kube-system
ERROR: Job failed (system failure): pods is forbidden: User "system:serviceaccount:dev:default" cannot create resource "pods" in API group "" in the namespace "dev"

解决方案: 执行一下命令:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding gitlab-cluster-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --group=system:serviceaccounts --namespace=dev

重新查看pods状态:

root@abcmaster:~# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                READY   STATUS             RESTARTS        AGE
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-lx9m7            0/1     ImagePullBackOff   0               41m
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-r6ctb            0/1     ErrImagePull       0               41m
etcd-abcmaster                      1/1     Running            1               42m
kube-apiserver-abcmaster            1/1     Running            1               42m
kube-controller-manager-abcmaster   1/1     Running            1               42m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-75hbh         1/1     Running            0               4s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-m5w5w         1/1     Running            6 (6m19s ago)   10m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-wjw74         1/1     Running            6 (6m21s ago)   10m
kube-proxy-djxs6                    1/1     Running            1               26m
kube-proxy-q9c8h                    1/1     Running            0               22m
kube-proxy-s7cfq                    1/1     Running            0               41m
kube-scheduler-abcmaster            1/1     Running            1               42m

仍然有coredns相关pod无法运行。

查询pod信息

root@abcmaster:~# kubectl get po coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-n9hnr -n kube-system -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"
  generateName: coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-
  labels:
    k8s-app: kube-dns
    pod-template-hash: 7f6cbbb7b8
  name: coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-n9hnr
  namespace: kube-system
  ownerReferences:
  - apiVersion: apps/v1
    blockOwnerDeletion: true
    controller: true
    kind: ReplicaSet
    name: coredns-7f6cbbb7b8
    uid: a66cd6e2-629a-4250-9732-01cf6331acb9
  resourceVersion: "6860"
  uid: 40b52d81-54c2-4882-87c4-a08ea5c66814
spec:
  containers:
  - args:
    - -conf
    - /etc/coredns/Corefile
    image: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    livenessProbe:
      failureThreshold: 5
      httpGet:
        path: /health
        port: 8080
        scheme: HTTP
      initialDelaySeconds: 60
      periodSeconds: 10
      successThreshold: 1
      timeoutSeconds: 5
    name: coredns
    ports:
    - containerPort: 53
      name: dns
      protocol: UDP
    - containerPort: 53
      name: dns-tcp
      protocol: TCP
    - containerPort: 9153
      name: metrics
      protocol: TCP
    readinessProbe:
      failureThreshold: 3
      httpGet:
        path: /ready
        port: 8181
        scheme: HTTP
      periodSeconds: 10
      successThreshold: 1
      timeoutSeconds: 1
    resources:
      limits:
        memory: 170Mi
      requests:
        cpu: 100m
        memory: 70Mi
    securityContext:
      allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
      capabilities:
        add:
        - NET_BIND_SERVICE
        drop:
        - all
      readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
    terminationMessagePath: /dev/termination-log
    terminationMessagePolicy: File
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /etc/coredns
      name: config-volume
      readOnly: true
    - mountPath: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount
      name: kube-api-access-2kjjw
      readOnly: true
  dnsPolicy: Default
  enableServiceLinks: true
  nodeName: abcnode2
  nodeSelector:
    kubernetes.io/os: linux
  preemptionPolicy: PreemptLowerPriority
  priority: 2000000000
  priorityClassName: system-cluster-critical
  restartPolicy: Always
  schedulerName: default-scheduler
  securityContext: {}
  serviceAccount: coredns
  serviceAccountName: coredns
  terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
  tolerations:
  - key: CriticalAddonsOnly
    operator: Exists
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane
  - effect: NoExecute
    key: node.kubernetes.io/not-ready
    operator: Exists
    tolerationSeconds: 300
  - effect: NoExecute
    key: node.kubernetes.io/unreachable
    operator: Exists
    tolerationSeconds: 300
  volumes:
  - configMap:
      defaultMode: 420
      items:
      - key: Corefile
        path: Corefile
      name: coredns
    name: config-volume
  - name: kube-api-access-2kjjw
    projected:
      defaultMode: 420
      sources:
      - serviceAccountToken:
          expirationSeconds: 3607
          path: token
      - configMap:
          items:
          - key: ca.crt
            path: ca.crt
          name: kube-root-ca.crt
      - downwardAPI:
          items:
          - fieldRef:
              apiVersion: v1
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
            path: namespace
status:
  conditions:
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"
    status: "True"
    type: Initialized
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"
    message: 'containers with unready status: [coredns]'
    reason: ContainersNotReady
    status: "False"
    type: Ready
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"
    message: 'containers with unready status: [coredns]'
    reason: ContainersNotReady
    status: "False"
    type: ContainersReady
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"
    status: "True"
    type: PodScheduled
  containerStatuses:
  - image: registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4
    imageID: ""
    lastState: {}
    name: coredns
    ready: false
    restartCount: 0
    started: false
    state:
      waiting:
        message: 'rpc error: code = Unknown desc = Error response from daemon: manifest
          for registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4 not found: manifest
          unknown: manifest unknown'
        reason: ErrImagePull
  hostIP: 192.168.0.135
  phase: Pending
  podIP: 10.244.2.3
  podIPs:
  - ip: 10.244.2.3
  qosClass: Burstable
  startTime: "2021-09-15T13:52:13Z"

通过以上信息可知是因为image无法拉取,但在abcmaster中该镜像是存在的。继续分析以上信息,发现该pod部署位置非abcmaster,而是192.168.0.135既abcnode2,原因是abcnode1/2中也需要手工拉取coredns镜像。

在abcnode1和abcnode2上执行一下命令拉取并tag镜像

docker pull coredns/coredns
docker tag coredns/coredns:latest registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/coredns:v1.8.4

重新在master查看pods状态,全部运行,至此,k8s环境部署初步成功。

root@abcmaster:~# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS      AGE
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-n9hnr            1/1     Running   0             9m31s
coredns-7f6cbbb7b8-nc46c            1/1     Running   0             20m
etcd-abcmaster                      1/1     Running   1             80m
kube-apiserver-abcmaster            1/1     Running   1             80m
kube-controller-manager-abcmaster   1/1     Running   1             80m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-75hbh         1/1     Running   0             38m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-m5w5w         1/1     Running   6 (44m ago)   48m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-wjw74         1/1     Running   6 (44m ago)   48m
kube-proxy-djxs6                    1/1     Running   1             64m
kube-proxy-q9c8h                    1/1     Running   0             60m
kube-proxy-s7cfq                    1/1     Running   0             80m
kube-scheduler-abcmaster            1/1     Running   1             80m
root@abcmaster:~# kubectl get nodes
NAME        STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION
abcmaster   Ready    control-plane,master   81m   v1.22.1
abcnode1    Ready    <none>                 65m   v1.22.1
abcnode2    Ready    <none>                 61m   v1.22.1

标签:abcmaster,kubernetes,Running,ubuntu,coredns,kubeadm,kube,com,flannel
来源: https://blog.csdn.net/arsiya_jerry/article/details/120322207

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